Welcome to the Venus Archive Page!



This page is designed to serve as a resource for accessing Venus atmospheric data sets housed at or accessed through the PDS Atmospheres Node. For additional information and to access datasets stored in other PDS Nodes, users are encouraged to explore the search engine on the PDS home page http://starbrite.jpl.nasa.gov/pds/index.jsp

(Note: DON'T FORGET TO FILTER your mission, target and instrument selections) or to go to the appropriate discipline nodes:

Geosciences - http://geo.pds.nasa.gov/
Imaging - http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/
PPI - http://pds-ppi.igpp.ucla.edu/

Tools

The tools that are cited below will help you access the data that is stored in various formats.

NASAView - PDS tool that will view files with PDS labels
http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/tools/software_download.cfm

The Tabular Data Slicer Tool can read valid PDS3 table, series, and spectrum objects in ASCII format with detached labels and a beta test version is available at http://pdstools.arc.nasa.gov/pdsWeb/ImportTabularData.action

Data Sets

The data sets listed below are in roughly reverse chronological order by mission.

MESSENGER

MESSENGER, a Discovery-class mission, utilized one Earth, two Venus and three Mercury flyby maneuvers to allow the craft to achieve Mercury orbit in March 2011. Closest approach for the two Venus flybys was at 08:34 UTC on October 24, 2006 at an altitude of 2,992 kilometers and 23:08 UTC on June 5, 2007 at an altitude of 338 kilometers.

Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has two subsystems, UVVS (Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer) and VIRS (Visible and Infrared Spectrograph). UVVS data are archived by the PDS Atmospheres Node and VIRS data are archived by the PDS Geosciences Node. Both data sets are available from both nodes.

The PDS Geosciences Node Mercury Orbital Data Explorer (ODE) at http://ode.rsl.wustl.edu/mercury/ provides search, display, and download tools for the PDS science data archives of the MESSENGER Mission. This includes all other instruments on MESSENGER.

These MESSENGER MASCS datasets that relate to atmospheric processes were collected by the UVVS and VIRS detectors at Earth and Venus over the interval 2004-216 (3-Aug) to 2008-294 (20 Oct). Both uncalibrated (EDR) and calibrated (CDR) data are available.

The MASCS volumes were reorganized for the latest delivery (9/8/2011) making the data easier to locate. Venus data can be found through these links and navigating to the data directory and then choosing the vc1, vc2 or vf2 subdirectories.

1. MESS-E/V/H-MASCS-2-UVVS-EDR-V1.0 This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS UVVS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs.

2. MESS-E/V/H-MASCS-2-VIRS-EDR-V1.0 This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs.

3. MESS-E/V/H-MASCS-3-UVVS-CDR-CALDATA-V1.0 This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS UVVS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs.

4. MESS-E/V/H-MASCS-3-VIRS-CDR-CALDATA-V1.0 This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs.




Venus Express

Venus Express (VEX), a European Space Agency (ESA) Mission, was designed to perform a global investigation of the Venusian atmosphere and of the plasma environment. Venus Express utilizes instruments that are modified versions of ESA's Mars Express and Rosetta missions.

Venus Express arrived at Venus on 11 April 2006 and by May 2006 had been lowered into its early operational orbit: a 24-hour elliptical, quasi-polar orbit with a minimum altitude of 250 kilometers and a maximum of 66,000 km from the planet. On 4 August 2009 a series of maneuvers further lowered the pericenter of the orbit to 185-300 km. VEX has successfully completed its primary mission and has been granted extentions.

Although VEX is an ESA mission and the data are stored in the Planetary Science Archive, the PDS/NASA and PSA/ESA have collaborated to develop interoperability processes that will allow you easy access from this VEX site.




GALILEO

The Galileo spacecraft utilized one Venus flyby and two Earth flybys to reach Jupiter. The Venus flyby occurred Feb. 10, 1990 at an altitude of 16,000 km.
Data from the Solid State Imager (SSI) and the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) are archived in the Imaging Node.

go_0002 (Galileo Orbiter SSI Images) This volume contains SSI images from the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft. It also contains documentation, software and index directories to support access to the image files data set.

go_1001 (Galileo Orbiter NIMS EDRs) This volume contains NIMS EDRs from the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft. It also contains documentation, software and index directories to support access to the image files on this disk.

go_1101 (Galileo Orbiter NIMS CUBEs) This volume contains NIMS CUBEs from the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft. It also contains documentation, software and index directories to support access to the image files on this disk. A NIMS CUBE is a calibrated spectral image that contains "backplanes" of geometry and other related information.




Magellan

The Magellan spacecraft was inserted into a near-polar elliptical orbit with a periapsis altitude of 294 km at 9.5 deg. N. on August 10, 1990. The mission ended, via atmospheric entry on October 12, 1994.

Magellan Radio Occultation Raw Data Records


mg_2201 mg_2205 mg_2209 mg_2213
mg_2202 mg_2206 mg_2210 mg_2214
mg_2203 mg_2207 mg_2211
mg_2204 mg_2208 mg_2212


These volumes contain raw data, partially processed data, and ancillary files from Magellan radio occultation experiments:

1. MGN-V-RSS-1-ROCC-V2.0 This data set is a time-ordered collection of raw and partially processed data from radio occultation experiments conducted using the Magellan spacecraft while it orbited Venus.

mg_2401 (Magellan Venus Radio Occultation Atmospheric Profiles)
This volume contains archival data produced from dual-frequency ingress radio occultation experiments using the Magellan orbiter on three consecutive orbits (#3212 - #3214) on October 5 and 6, 1991. The data sets include vertical profiles of refractivity, temperature, pressure and density in the neutral Venus atmosphere, and vertical profiles of 13-cm and 3.6-cm absorptivity and abundance of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4).

1. MGN-V-RSS-5-OCC-PROF-ABS-H2SO4-V1.0

This data set includes vertical profiles of 13-cm and 3.6-cm absorptivity and abundance of sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4).

2. MGN-V-RSS-5-OCC-PROF-RTPD-V1.0

This data set includes vertical profiles of refractivity, temperature, pressure and density in the neutral Venus atmosphere..


Pioneer Venus Orbiter

Some of these datasets were delivered to NSSDC. To find those that are available in the PDS go to PVO and search on PVO. A biography for accessing published results can be obtained by searching within the Astrophysical Data System (ADS).

Use - Combining with and -- Use Title Words = Pioneer Venus Orbiter

The first few retrieved references will provide you with a list of authors that will allow you to expand your search via the Author option.

The Pioneer Venus was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978. The mission ended via atmospheric entry in August 1992. The instrument suite included:


1. A cloud photopolarimeter to measure the vertical distribution of the clouds

2. A surface radar mapper to determine topography and surface characteristics

3. An infrared radiometer to measure IR emissions from the Venus atmosphere

4. An airglow ultraviolet spectrometer to measure scattered and emitted UV light

pv01_1001, pv01_1002 (Pioneer Venus Orbiter OUVS Inbound Monochrome Images)

These volumes contain Inbound Monochrome Images (IMIDR) produced from the Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (OUVS) instrument. Data contained here were obtained between 1978 and 1992. The volume also contains documentation in the form of ancillary files, to support access of the data on these volumes.

PVO-V-OUVS-5-IMIDR-V1.0

This data set provides a mission-long set of images at several far-UV and near-UV wavelengths associated with day and night airglow emissions and with reflected sunlight. All Venus phases are sampled, as are all levels of solar activity during 1978-1992.

5. A neutral mass spectrometer to determine the composition of the upper atmosphere

This data is archived in the Planetary Plasma Interactions Node (PPI) as PV03_0001.

6. A solar wind plasma analyzer to measure properties of the solar wind.

7. A magnetometer to characterize the magnetic field at Venus.

8. An electric field detector to study the solar wind and its interactions.

9. An electron temperature probe to study the thermal properties of the ionosphere.

10. An ion mass spectrometer to characterize the ionospheric ion population.

11. A charged particle retarding potential analyzer to study ionospheric particles.

12. Two radio science experiments to determine the gravity field of Venus.

13. A radio occultation experiment to characterize the atmosphere

This data is archived in the Planetary Plasma Interactions Node (PPI) as PV04_0001 to PV04_0066.

14. An atmospheric drag experiment to study the upper atmosphere.

15. A radio science atmospheric and solar wind turbulence experiment.

16. A gamma ray burst detector to record gamma ray burst events.

The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe

These datasets were not archived in the PDS but some are listed at NSSDC. A biography for accessing published results can be obtained by searching within the Astrophysical Data System (ADS).

Use - Combining with and -- Use Title Words = Pioneer Venus Probe

The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus (290 kg) that carried a large (315 kg) and three small (90 kg each) atmospheric probes that entered the December 9, 1978.

The bus carried two experiments, a neutral mass spectrometer and an ion mass spectrometer. It made measurements down to 110 km altitude. A region not sampled by the probes.

The large probe was equipped with a parachute and carried seven experiments:


1) A neutral mass spectrometer to measure the atmospheric composition

2) A gas chromatograph to measure the atmospheric composition

3) A solar flux radiometer to measure solar flux penetration in the atmosphere

4) An infrared radiometer to measure distribution of infrared radiation

5) A cloud particle size spectrometer to measure particle size and shape

6) A nephelometer to search for cloud particles

7) Temperature, pressure, and acceleration sensors


The three smaller identical probes had no parachutes and carried

1) A nephelometer

2) Temperature, pressure, and acceleration sensors

3) A net flux radiometer experiment to map the distribution of sources and sinks of radiative energy in the atmosphere.


Doppler information was received from all four probes that were targeted for different locations on the planet.

Pioneer Venus Probes and Bus - Atmospheric Entry **

All times in UT (= EST + 5 hours) on December 9, 1978
   Large ProbeNorth ProbeDay ProbeNight ProbeBus
Entry Time (200 km)18:45:3218:49:4018:52:1818:56:1320:21:52
Impact Time19:39:5319:42:4019:47:5919:52:05*
Loss of Signal19:39:5319:42:4020:55:3419:52:0720:22:55
Impact Latitude4.4 N59.3 N31.3 S28.7 S(37.9 S)
Impact Longitude304.04.8317.056.7(290.9)
Solar Zenith Angle65.7108.079.9150.760.7
Local Venus Time7:383:356:460:078:30
*Bus signal lost at 110 km altitude
** Information from NSSDC web site.