Cassini Icy Satellites, Enceladus, and Other Moons


Saturn's largest satellites, to relative scale unless otherwise noted. NASA/JPL/David Seal

On this page:

  • Overview: Major findings from Icy Satellite studies, mission objectives, important publications, and satellite summary table
  • Icy Satellite Data: Links to find general Icy Satellite data resources
  • Atmospheres: Publications, data, and analysis of atmosphere studies
  • Interiors: Publications, data, and analysis of interior studies
  • Magnetospheric Interactions: Publications, data, and analysis of studies relating icy satellites to Saturn's magnetosphere
  • Surfaces: Publications, data, and analysis of surface studies

Overview

The Icy Satellites Sections in Cassini Mission Final Report (In preparation) summarizes the status of Saturn's icy satellites, in 2018, as a result of Cassini exploration of the Saturn system. It also includes open questions that will be explored by future scientists.

Charm Talks is a series of talks given by the team that provides insight into discovery and development of understanding
The Cassini-Huygens mission offered the first extended, comprehensive view of the moons of Saturn. In addition to studying the mission objectives detailed below, the top discoveries by Cassini include:

Enceladus

  • Discovery of Enceladus plumes, their coincidence with small-scale hot spots, the plume they form, and its impact on the Saturnian system.
  • Evidence of hydrothermal chemistry and discovery of a strong thermal anomaly on Enceladus.
  • Detection of global oceans beneath Enceladus's, and possibly Dione's and Mimas's icy crusts.
  • Enceladus plume structure connection to both individual plumes and "curtains" along tiger stripes.
  • Enceladus plume strength modulation by tidal forces, and stochastic on/off timing of individual plumes.
  • The plume of Enceladus is the source of the E-ring of Saturn.
  • Detection of plume composition: water (vapor and micron-sized grains), salt, organics, nanograin dust, hydrogen, and ammonia.
  • Discovery of supersonic motion in the plumes.

Other Icy Satellites

  • Evidence for subdued ongoing or recently extinguished activity on Dione.
  • Wispy streaks on Dione and Rhea are actually fracture systems.
  • Red streaks on Tethys signifying potential outgassing along fractures.
  • Discovery of a globe-girdling equatorial ridge on Iapetus, perhaps akin to those seen on the ring moons.
  • Discovery of organic compounds on Iapetus and other moons

Phoebe and Small Moons

  • Thermal segregation and Phoebe ring particle infall as the cause of the bright/dark dichotomy on Iapetus, first discovered by the astronomer Cassini in 1677.
  • Likely formation of Phoebe in the Kuiper Belt.
  • Evidence for iron oxides and space-weathered silicates on the surfaces of Phoebe and Iapetus.
  • Low densities of the small moons.
  • Evidence that outer irregular moons are low density and slow rotators based on light curve surveys.
  • Discovery of organics and carbon dioxide (and possibly ammonia) on the outer moons.

Ring-Moon Relationships

  • The discovery that the high reflectance and albedo/color patterns of the Saturnian inner moons is primarily due to exchange of material between rings and moons specific to the Saturnian system. This includes the accumulation of E-ring particles and subsequent alteration by high-energy elections to produce "pacmen."
  • Accretion disks on the ring moons showing they continue to add particles from the main ring system to their bodies.
  • Evidence for past rings around moons, such as blue pearls on Rhea, and possibly the ridge of Iapetus.

All Cassini instruments contributed to these discoveries.

Mission Objectives

  • Determine general characteristics and geological histories of satellites.
  • Define mechanisms of crustal and surface modifications, both external and internal.
  • Investigate compositions and distributions of surface materials, particularly dark, organic rich materials and low-melting-point condensed volatiles.
  • Constrain models of satellites' bulk compositions and internal structures.
  • Investigate interactions with magnetosphere and ring system and possible gas injections into the magnetosphere.

Important Publications

A list of publications related to Icy Satellites can be found on the Cassini Icy Satellites Reference Page.

The official book on Enceladus, Enceladus and the Icy Moons of Saturn, offers the following sections:
  • Part 1: Enceladus Geophysics, Geology, and Geochemistry
  • Part 2: Enceladus Plumes and the E Ring
  • Part 3: Saturn's Icy Moons
  • Part 4: Astrobiology and Exploration of Enceladus

Satellite Summary Table

An up-to-date table of the physical and dynamical properties of all the saturnian moons is given by mean orbital parameters and by physical data and dynamical constants on the Solar System Dynamics website.
Body Code Mean Radius Semi-Major Axis Type Cassini Observations
Titan TI 2575 1,221,865 Major Moon Titan web page
Rhea RH 764 527,068 Icy Moon Rhea
Iapetus IA 736 3,560,851 Icy Moon Iapetus
Dione DI 562 377,415 Icy Moon Dione
Tethys TE 533 294,672 Icy Moon Tethys
Enceladus EN 252 238,042 Icy Moon Enceladus
Mimas MI 198 185,539 Icy Moon Mimas
Hyperion HY 135 1,500,934 Inner irregular Hyperion
Phoebe PH 106 12,947,913 Outer irregular KBO Phoebe
Janus JA 89.5 151,460 Inner irregular Janus
Epimetheus EP 58.1 151,410 Inner irregular Epimetheus
Prometheus PM 43.1 139,380 F-ring Shepherd Prometheus
Pandora PA 40.7 141,720 Inner irregular Pandora
Siarnaq - 20 18,182,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Helene HE 17.6 377,420 Dione L4 irregular Helene
Albiorix - 16 16,393,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Atlas AT 15.1 137,670 Outer A ring edge irregular Atlas
Pan PN 14.1 133,580 Encke gap moonlet Pan
Telesto TL 12.4 294,710 Tethys L4 irregular Telesto
Paaliaq - 11 15,204,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Calypso CP 10.7 294,710 Tethys L5 irregular Calypso
Ymir - 9 23,128,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Kiviuq - 8 11,384,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Tarvos - 7.5 18,243,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Ijiraq - 6 11,408,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Erriapus - 5 17,602,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Skathi - 4 15,635,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Daphnis DA 3.8 136,505 Keeler gap moonlet Daphnis
Bestla - 3.5 20,209,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Mundilfari - 3.5 18,653,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Narvi - 3.5 19,349,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Suttungr - 3.5 19,468,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Thrymr - 3.5 20,418,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Aegir - 3 20,751,000 Outer irregular Not imaged by Cassini
Bebhionn - 3 17,116,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Bergelmir - 3 19,336,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Fornjot - 3 25,146,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Greip - 3 18,457,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Hati - 3 19,868,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Hyrrokkin - 3 18,440,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Jarnsaxa - 3 19,354,000 Outer irregular Attempted, not resolved
Kari - 3 22,093,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Loge - 3 23,059,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Skoll - 3 17,668,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Surtur - 3 22,941,000 Outer irregular Attempted, not resolved
Tarqeq - 3 17,962,000 Outer irregular Outer Rocks
Farbauti - 2.5 20,390,000 Outer irregular Not imaged by Cassini
Pallene PL 2.5 212,280 Inner irregular Pallene
Fenrir - 2 22,454,000 Outer irregular Not imaged by Cassini
Methone ME 1.6 194,440 Inner irregular Methone
Polydeuces PO 1.3 377,200 Dione L5 irregular Polydeuces
Anthe AN 0.9 197,655 Inner irregular Anthe
Aegaeon AG 0.3 167,494 G ring moonlet Aegaeon

Icy Satellite Data

This section includes a comprehensive list of all of the search tools and data archives related to icy satellite studies, plus processed data that span the topic areas. The science topics below include links to data sets related to each topic.

Data Search Tools

Searching by parameters:

  • OPUS is a search tool for CIRS, ISS, UVIS and VIMS data with a wide variety of search parameters including the target body, distance, and illumination conditions.
  • PDS Imaging Atlas is a search tool for ISS and RADAR data with a wide variety of search parameters including the target body, distance, and illumination conditions.

Searching by surface map:

  • Icy Trek is a Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to find, visualize and download data in the context of a map of various icy satellites.
  • PILOT is a Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to find and download data in the context of a map of Enceladus and Mimas.

Searching by mission events:

  • Event tables exist for all observations of the small icy satellites. It may be downloaded as a Single File (CSV) combining all of the small satellites, or on a per-satellite basis in the table above.
  • The Event Calendar helps search for observations of icy satellites and related events such as ring-plane crossings.
  • Horizons is a web-based set of tools that compute ephemeris information for the Cassini mission. The location code for Cassini is 500@-82
  • The Tour Atlas (Readme File) provides various geometric parameters (range, latitude, longitude, etc.) referenced to Saturn, Titan and the icy satellites in 5-minute and 1-hour time steps for the entire mission

Reference Tables and Graphics to Help Find and Understand Data

Cassini Sequence List with Icy Satellite Observations Descriptions
    Sequence Time, Descriptions, Planning Timelines and Targets
Sequence Start (SCET) Start (Date) End (SCET) Observation descriptions Planning timelines Targets
S1 2004-135T18:40:00 May 14 2004 2004-171T21:52:00 S01_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost000_PH_handoff.pdf Phoebe, Rhea
S7 2004-351T13:22:00 Dec 16 2004 2005-022T10:38:00 S07_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost0BC_handoff.pdf
sost00C_handoff.pdf
Iapetus, Enceladus, Mimas, Rhea, Dione, Tethys
S8 2005-022T10:38:00 Jan 22 2005 2005-058T00:36:00 S08_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost003_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Dione, Mimas, Tethys, Pandora
S9 2005-058T00:36:00 Feb 27 2005 2005-099T05:15:00 S09_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost004_handoff.pdf Rhea, Janus, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Dione, Iapetus, Prometheus, Helene
S12 2005-169T01:34:00 Jun 18 2005 2005-212T22:00:00 S12_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost011_handoff.pdf Rhea, Enceladus, Epimetheus, Pandora, Atlas, Prometheus
S13 2005-212T22:00:00 Jul 31 2005 2005-242T21:43:00 S13_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost012_handoff.pdf Rhea, Mimas, Dione, Tethys, Hyperion, Atlas
S14 2005-242T21:43:00 Aug 30 2005 2005-281T12:30:00 S14_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost015_handoff.pdf Pandora, Epimetheus, Tethys, Iapetus, Dione, Rhea, Enceladus, Mimas, Calypso, Hyperion, Janus, Phoebe
S15 2005-281T12:30:00 Oct 8 2005 2005-316T17:01:00 S15_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost016_handoff.pdf Dione, Telesto, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Prometheus, Janus, Rhea, Iapetus, Phoebe, Epimetheus, Pandora, Calypso
S16 2005-316T17:01:00 Nov 12 2005 2005-351T14:21:00 S16_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost018_handoff.pdf Iapetus, Dione, Rhea, Enceladus, Tethys, Epimetheus, Mimas, Phoebe, Calypso, Janus
S17 2005-351T14:21:00 Dec 17 2005 2006-027T04:03:00 S17_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost020_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Hyperion, Janus, Epimetheus, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Telesto, Phoebe, Helene, Mimas, Calypso, Iapetus
S19 2006-070T00:35:00 Mar 11 2006 2006-112T05:15:00 S19_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost022_handoff.pdf Rhea, Enceladus, Epimetheus, Mimas, Janus, Tethys, Dione, Iapetus, Calypso, Telesto, Helene, Paaliaq
S30 2007-124T22:00:00 May 4 2007 2007-162T03:10:00 S30_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost045_handoff.pdf Prometheus, Epimetheus, Enceladus, Rhea, Pan, Tethys, Mimas, Dione, Skathi, Mundilfari, Kiviuq, Iijiraq, Bestla
S31 2007-162T03:10:00 Jun 11 2007 2007-195T01:06:00 S31_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost047_handoff.pdf Rhea, Mimas, Tethys, Enceladus, Iapetus, Fornjot, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Hati, Mundilfari, Tarvos, Kiviuq, Skaathi, Erriapus
S33 2007-223T23:20:00 Aug 11 2007 2007-265T20:51:00 S33_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost049_handoff.pdf
sost049_IA_handoff.pdf
Tethys, Rhea, Iapetus
S34 2007-265T20:51:00 Sep 22 2007 2007-304T18:40:00 S34_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost050_handoff.pdf Iapetus, Dione, Enceladus, Tethys, Mimas, Hyperion, Rhea, Epimetheus, Calypso
S35 2007-304T18:40:00 Oct 31 2007 2007-348T16:00:00 S35_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost052_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Dione, Iapetus, Mimas, Epimetheus, Erriapus, Ymir, Kiviuq, Siarnaq, Paaliaq
S38 2008-047T11:51:00 Feb 16 2008 2008-083T01:50:00 S38_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost061_handoff.pdf Iapetus, Janus, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus
S43 2008-224T00:20:00 Aug 11 2008 2008-257T22:19:00 S43_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost080_E4_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Tethys, Pallene, Dione, Mimas
S44 2008-257T22:19:00 Sep 13 2008 2008-292T20:21:00 S44_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost088_E5_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Mimas, Tethys, Prometheus, Dione, Ymir
S45 2008-292T20:21:00 Oct 18 2008 2008-331T17:55:00 S45_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost091_E6_handoff.pdf Mimas, Tethys, Enceladus, Dione, Rhea, Prometheus, Helene
S54 2009-278T04:03:00 Oct 5 2009 2009-317T19:21:00 S54_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost120_E7_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Tethys, Mimas, Dione, Janus, Bestla, Kiviuq
S55 2009-317T19:21:00 Nov 13 2009 2009-356T23:26:00 S55_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost121_E8_handoff.pdf Hyperion, Enceladus, Rhea, Dione, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Iapetus, Siarnaq
S56 2009-356T23:26:00 Dec 22 2009 2010-023T15:00:00 Enceladus, Prometheus, Dione, Rhea, Epimetheus, Janus, Erriapus
S57 2010-023T15:00:00 Jan 23 2010 2010-060T19:04:00 S57_Highlights_SOST.pdf Enceladus, Dione, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Janus, Erriapus, Calypso, Mimas, Tethys, Iapetus, Tarvos
S58 2010-060T19:04:00 Mar 1 2010 2010-095T02:49:00 S58_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost127_R2_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Helena, Iapetus, Dione, Tethys, Janus, Epimetheus, Erriapus, Bebhionn
S59 2010-095T02:49:00 Apr 5 2010 2010-137T13:31:00 S59_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost129_D2_handoff.pdf
sost130_E9_W_handoff.pdf
Dione, Janus, Enceladus, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Rhea, Janus, Iapetus, Albiorix, Bebhionn
S60 2010-137T13:31:00 May 17 2010 2010-176T21:10:00 S60_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost131_E10_handoff.pdf Dione, Enceladus, Iapetus, Pandora, Rhea
S61 2010-176T21:10:00 Jun 25 2010 2010-211T18:51:00 S61_Highlights_SOST.pdf Enceladus, Kiviiuq, Dione, Prometheus, Janus
S62 2010-211T18:51:00 Jul 30 2010 2010-249T06:33:00 S62_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost136_handoff.pdf Iapetus, Albiorix, Kiviuq, Dione, Enceladus, Tethys, Hyrrokkin, Greip, Telesto, Rhea
S63 2010-249T06:33:00 Sep 6 2010 2010-284T04:17:00 S63_Highlights_SOST.pdf Hyrrokkin, Kiviuq, Enceladus, Siarnaq
S64 2010-284T04:17:00 Oct 11 2010 2010-328T19:35:00 S64_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost139_handoff.pdf Dione, Enceladus, Mimas, Pallene, Rhea, Hyrrokkin, Kari, Bergelmir
S65 2010-328T19:35:00 Nov 24 2010 2011-017T08:42:00 S65_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost141_E12_handoff.pdf
sost142_E13_handoff.pdf
Hyperion, Enceladus, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Siarnaq, Tarvos
S66 2011-017T08:42:00 Jan 17 2011 2011-066T13:02:00 S66_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost144_handoff.pdf Rhea, Dione, Iijiraq, Enceladus, Mimas, Helene, Siarnaq
S67 2011-066T13:02:00 Mar 7 2011 2011-115T16:03:00 Skathi
S68 2011-115T16:03:00 Apr 25 2011 2011-184T11:10:00 S68_Highlights_SOST.pdf Rhea, Dione, Enceladus, Suttungr, Iapetus, Helene
S69 2011-184T11:10:00 Jul 3 2011 2011-250T00:48:00 S69_Highlights_SOST.pdf Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Tarqeq, Hyperion
S70 2011-250T00:48:00 Sep 7 2011 2011-320T03:02:00 S70_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost153_handoff.pdf
sost154_E14_handoff.pdf
sost155_E15_handoff.pdf
sost156_E16_handoff.pdf
Paaliaq, Enceladus, Pallene, Tethys, Hyperion, Dione, Skoll, Rhea, Loge
S71 2011-320T03:02:00 Nov 16 2011 2012-024T22:55:00 S71_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost158_D3_handoff.pdf Suttungr, Thrymir, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Ymir, Siarnaq
S72 2012-024T22:55:00 Jan 24 2012 2012-097T11:47:00 S72_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost162_handoff.pdf
sost163_E17_handoff.pdf
Enceladus, Thrymir, Jarnsaxa, Mundilfari, Rhea, Tethys, Dione, Janus
S73 2012-097T11:47:00 Apr 6 2012 2012-170T22:58:00 S73_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost164_E18_handoff.pdf
sost165_E19_handoff.pdf
sost166_handoff.pdf
Enceladus, Tethys, Rhea, Dione, Erriapus, Ymir, Methone, Mimas
S74 2012-170T22:58:00 Jun 18 2012 2012-238T02:19:00 S74_Highlights_SOST.pdf Ymir, Tethys, Dione, Mimas
S75 2012-238T02:19:00 Aug 25 2012 2012-307T14:30:00 S75_Highlights_SOST.pdf Enceladus, Bestla, Mimas
S76 2012-307T14:30:00 Nov 2 2012 2013-013T17:51:00 S76_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost177_handoff.pdf Kiviuq, Enceladus, Surtur, Rhea, Dione
S77 2013-013T17:51:00 Jan 13 2013 2013-085T13:15:00 S77_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost183_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Erriapus, Hati, Rhea, Hyrrokkin
S78 2013-085T13:15:00 Mar 26 2013 2013-158T00:45:00 S78_Highlights_SOST.pdf Hyrrokkin, Narvi, Enceladus, Mimas, Pandora, Siarnaq, Tarvos, Dione
S79 2013-158T00:45:00 Jun 7 2013 2013-226T09:51:00 S79_Highlights_SOST.pdf Albiorix, Enceladus, Tethys, Mimas, Dione, Pandora, Calypso, Iijiraq, Paaliaq, Iapetus
S80 2013-226T09:51:00 Aug 14 2013 2013-295T23:15:00 Iapetus, Kiviuq, Tarvos, Siarnaq
S81 2013-295T23:15:00 Oct 22 2013 2013-362T01:47:00 Skoll, Tarvos, Skathi
S82 2013-362T01:47:00 Dec 28 2013 2014-072T21:12:00 Siarnaq, Tarqeq, Kiviuq
S83 2014-072T21:12:00 Mar 13 2014 2014-144T10:01:00 Fornjot, Enceladus, Kiviuq
S84 2014-144T10:01:00 May 24 2014 2014-212T05:09:00 Erriapus, Kiviuq, Dione, Enceladus, Tethys, Hyperion, Iijiraq
S85 2014-212T05:09:00 Jul 31 2014 2014-279T01:01:00 Mimas, Tarvos, Thrymir, Kiviuq, Iijiraq
S86 2014-279T01:01:00 Oct 6 2014 2014-351T03:15:00 S86_Highlights_SOST.pdf Rhea, Kiviuq, Albiorix, Tethys, Loge
S87 2014-351T03:15:00 Dec 17 2014 2015-052T16:52:00 S87_Highlights_SOST.pdf Thrymir, Erriapus, Mimas, Iapetus, Tethys, Phoebe, Albiorix, Siarnaq, Rhea
S88 2015-052T16:52:00 Feb 21 2015 2015-121T18:45:00 S88_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost214_handoff.pdf Loge, Iapetus, Paaliaq, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Bebhionn
S89 2015-121T18:45:00 May 1 2015 2015-194T13:42:00 S89_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost215_handoff.pdf
sost217_D4_handoff.pdf
Dione, Tethys, Polydeuces, Enceladus, Kiviuq, Paaliaq, Hyperion, Hyrrokkin, Mimas, Tarvos, Rhea, Albiorix, Ymir
S90 2015-194T13:42:00 Jul 13 2015 2015-264T02:48:00 S90_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost220_D5_handoff.pdf
sost221_handoff.pdf
Bestla, Rhea, Dione, Enceladus, Hyrrokkin, Tethys, Hyperion, Hati, Greip, Bergelmir
S91 2015-264T02:48:00 Sep 21 2015 2015-329T06:08:00 S91_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost223_E20_handoff.pdf
sost224_E21_handoff.pdf
Bestla, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hati, Skathi, Janus, Iijiraq
S92 2015-329T06:08:00 Nov 25 2015 2016-038T00:48:00 S92_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost228_E22_handoff.pdf
sost230_handoff.pdf
Mimas, Enceladus, Siarnaq, Iijiraq, Epimetheus, Atlas, Prometheus, Skathi, Rhea, Aegaeon, Dione, Hati, Erriapus, Narvi, Daphnis, Mimas, Telesto, Anthe, Albiorix
S93 2016-038T00:48:00 Feb 7 2016 2016-109T18:43:00 S93_Highlights_SOST.pdf Dione, Enceladus, Skoll, Iijiraq, Mimas, Surtur
S94 2016-109T18:43:00 Apr 18 2016 2016-178T15:44:00 S94_Highlights_SOST.pdf Tarvos, Rhea, Skathi, Albiorix, Tethys, Dione, Tarqeq
S95 2016-178T15:44:00 Jun 26 2016 2016-252T10:36:00 S95_Highlights_SOST.pdf Mimas, Tarqeq, Tethys, Dione, Skathi, Hyperion, Erriapus
S96 2016-252T10:36:00 Sep 8 2016 2016-328T05:43:00 S96_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost246_handoff.pdf Polydeuces, Prometheus, Enceladus, Mimas, Kiviuq, Rhea, Tarvos, Dione, Tethys, Erriapus
S97 2016-328T05:43:00 Nov 23 2016 2017-034T07:05:00 S97_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost250_handoff.pdf
sost258_259_handoff.pdf
Suttungr, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Erriapus, Pandora, Pallene, Daphnis, Tarqeq, Paaliaq, Albiorix, Epimetheus, Mimas, Rhea
S98 2017-034T07:05:00 Feb 3 2017 2017-104T14:55:00 S98_Highlights_SOST.pdf Enceladus, Epimetheus, Dione, Pan, Iapetus, Tethys, Hyrrokkin, Atlas
S99 2017-104T14:55:00 Apr 13 2017 2017-145T08:57:00 S99_Highlights_SOST.pdf Enceladus, Rhea, Bebhionn, Dione
S100 2017-145T08:57:00 May 24 2017 2017-191T01:14:00 S100_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost276_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Iapetus, Bebhionn, Tethys, Dione
S101 2017-191T01:14:00 Jul 9 2017 2017-258T20:36:00 S101_Highlights_SOST.pdf sost286_handoff.pdf Enceladus, Kiviuq, Dione, Thrymir

Documentation and Orientation


Atmospheres of Saturn Moons

Moon Atmosphere Data

IAU Coordinate Systems

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has several coordinate systems used to describe planetary coordinates, and understanding them is important to help find appropriate data.

Searching by parameters:

  • OPUS is a search tool for UVIS and VIMS data with a wide variety of search parameters including the target body, distance, and illumination conditions.

Searching by mission events:

  • Event tables exist for all observations of the icy satellites. It may be downloaded as a Single File (CSV) combining all of the satellites, or on a per-satellite basis in the sections below.
  • The Event Calendar helps search for observations of icy satellites and related events such as ring-plane crossings.
  • The Tour Atlas (Readme File) provides various geometric parameters (range, latitude, longitude, etc.) referenced to Saturn, Titan and the icy satellites in 5-minute and 1-hour time steps for the entire mission

Interiors of Saturn Moons

Moon-Interior Data

Searching by mission events:

  • Event tables exist for all observations of the icy satellites. It may be downloaded as a Single File (CSV) combining all of the satellites, or on a per-satellite basis in the sections below.
  • The Event Calendar helps search for measurements of icy satellites.
  • The Tour Atlas (Readme File) provides various geometric parameters (range, latitude, longitude, etc.) referenced to Saturn, Titan and the icy satellites in 5-minute and 1-hour time steps for the entire mission

Higher Order Products


Dione, Mimas, Phoebe and Tethys Shape models

Small Moon Shape Models

Studying the Magnetospheric Interactions of Icy Satellites

The Saturn Magnetospheric Science Page includes more information on the fields and particles instruments of Cassini.

Key Publications

  • Photoelectrons in the Enceladus plume. Space Physics Vol 118 Issue 8 pp5099-5108, Coates et al. (2013) [DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50495] includes "Figure 1: ELS spectrograms for all Enceladus encounters observed by CAPS".

Magnetospheric Interaction Data

Instruments Used to Study the Magnetospheric Interactions of Moons with Saturn

  • CAPS - Cassini Plasma Spectrometer
    Measure plasma interactions
  • INMS - Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer
    Measure neutral and charged ions with in-situ mass-spectrometry
  • CDA - Cosmic Dust Analyzer
    Measure in-situ dust particles
  • MAG - Magnetometer
    Measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field of Saturn, and perturbations in that field when a moon interacts with it

Searching by mission events:

  • Event tables exist for all fields and particles-instrument observations of the icy satellites. It may be downloaded as a Single File (CSV) combining all of the satellites, or on a per-satellite basis in the sections below.
  • The Event Calendar helps search for observations of icy satellites and related events such as ring-plane crossings.
  • The Tour Atlas (Readme File) provides various geometric parameters (range, latitude, longitude, etc.) referenced to Saturn, Titan and the icy satellites in 5-minute and 1-hour time steps for the entire mission

Surfaces of Icy Satellites

Surface Data and Maps

IAU Coordinate Systems

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has several coordinate systems used to describe planetary coordinates, and understanding them is important to help find appropriate data.

Searching by parameters:

  • OPUS is a search tool for CIRS, ISS, UVIS and VIMS data with a wide variety of search parameters including the target body, distance, and illumination conditions.
  • PDS Imaging Atlas is a search tool for ISS and RADAR data with a wide variety of search parameters including the target body, distance, and illumination conditions.

Searching by surface map:

  • Icy Trek is a Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to find, visualize and download data in the context of a map of Dione, Enceladus, Iapetus and Rhea.
  • PILOT is a Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to find and visualize data in the context of a map of Enceladus and Mimas.

Searching by mission events:

  • Event tables exist for all observations of the icy satellites. It may be downloaded as a Single File (CSV) combining all of the satellites, or on a per-satellite basis in the sections below.
  • The Event Calendar helps search for observations of icy satellites and related events such as ring-plane crossings.
  • The CIRS Icy Satellite Target Notebook provides details on the many CIRS observations and observation campaigns of the Icy Satellites pursued during the course of the Cassini mission.
  • Red Tethys Observation table
  • The Tour Atlas (Readme File) provides various geometric parameters (range, latitude, longitude, etc.) referenced to Saturn, Titan and the icy satellites in 5-minute and 1-hour time steps for the entire mission

Higher Order Products


Dione, Mimas, Phoebe and Tethys Shape models

Small Moon Shape Models


For questions and comments, visit the PDS Cassini Contact Page